The following summary is for information purposes and very important to all Ontario residents, for Simple Wills and Powers of Attorney for Personal Care/Health and for Property are required in Ontario and if you fail to have such documents prepared, then it is a most costly exercise to have your property and/or estate left and administered by spouse or family members.
For example, a Last Will and Testament is prepared in the event of death of the person executing the will, i.e. the testator; in such a Will, the testator would name his or her spouse or family member, one or two persons to act as the Estate Trustee/Executor to manage the estate and distribute the assets of the Testator after his or her death. You may wish to name an alternative person if the first named Estate Trustee/Executor cannot act or predeceases you. Normally after payment of debts and funeral expenses, then a bequest is left of all the property of the Testator i.e. the residue of the estate after payment of debts, funeral expenses and no need to list the type of property either real estate or investments, furnishings etc. Such residue of the Testator is then left/bequeathed to his or her spouse, then if the spouse did not survive, or predeceased the Testator would normally leave the residue of the estate to the children referred to as issue per stirpes, meaning that the children if underage would be left the property, and an age of responsibility when such children should receive their share of the Testator’s estate is then inserted, such as l8, 2l, 23, 25 years or other age. The Estate Trustee is authorized to hold that child’s share and invest such proceeds and use it for the care, maintenance, education/tuition of the child, and then when the child reaches the age as selected by the parent, the child would get the monies remaining in trust. If such child predeceased the parent, the “per stirpes” expression would apply and if for example there were 3 children, one died and left 2 children, i.e. grandchildren, such grandchildren would get their father/mother’s share of the grandparent’s estate being l/3rd share and other 2 children would get their l/3rd share each. There are other clauses, such as appointment of guardian to get custody and raise children under the age of majority, common accident clause if no one survived, a Family Law Act clause so that if one of the children received share in their parent’s estate, this share or bequest would not be shared with their spouse or claimed as a Family Asset under the Family Law Act of Ontario.
If you fail to have a will, then it is a costly exercise to appoint an estate trustee, usually a member of the family with possible insurance bonds. The will with the powers of attorney documents can be amended at any time, but clients are warned that if one spouse died, the other survived, and the children are no longer dependents, i.e. they are no longer in school and working, then the surviving spouse can revoke the will and cut out the children as beneficiaries and leave the estate to a third party. This can be protected if the spouses have a marriage contract. There are other issues such as cohabitation with common law spouses and property and other issues need protect just as in a Marriage Contract and that would be contained in a Cohabitation Agreement under terms of the Family Law Act of Ontario. All clients should know that if they remarry, a pre-existing will is revoked and such domestic contract under such Act is recommended.
For Powers of Attorney under the l995 Substitute Decisions , the parties should name the spouse as their prime attorney and name alternates or substitutes for the spouse in the event that the spouse cannot act or predeceased the person giving the power of attorney, i.e. the donor.It is also important not to designate your estate but rather your spouse, and then even your children or other relation as a contingent beneficiary under any life insurance, pension, or RRSP’s or RRIF’s if such institutions permit so as to avoid the large cost of probating a will.
There are 2 separate forms of powers of attorney, one for personal care or health, whereby the appointed attorney or substitute is authorized to make personal care, health decisions, consents to operations, blood transfusions, decisions as to where the donor wishes to reside or is institutionalized, if the donor suffers from a mental disability e.g. Alzheimer’s disease. This personal care power of attorney form also includes the living will clause which can be broadened but generally states that the donor does not wish any medical procedures or extraordinary prolongation of life, or resuscitation in the event that there is no brain activity.
Property power of attorney is important in Ontario whereby the donor would name the spouse and as substitute for the spouse, 2 persons/children/relations acting jointly to handle and administer the donor’s property, since if the donor or person granting the power of attorney becomes disabled, then the Office of the Public Guardian and Trustee of the Ontario Government will in most cases assume control of the donor’s property, house, bank accounts, during such person’s disability.
The costs for such wills and powers of attorney are set out in our website and we would be pleased to meet with any parties wishing such documents prepared.
By: Elliott Dale